Say you’re on vacation with your family. Say you’re in Denver. Say you rented a big Airbnb, where you all can cook and bake and stay up late watching movies. Say you want brownies; now everyone wants brownies, so you make your favorite recipe—but it turns out different. Why?
Because you’re a mile above sea level.
Today, we’re making sure no batch of brownies (or cupcakes or cookies) gets botched again. Enter: our handy guide on how to convert a baking recipe for high altitude. Let’s dive in. Or should I say climb up?
What is considered high altitude for baking?
If you’re at an altitude of at least 3,500 feet above sea level, you may need to adjust sea level–developed recipes accordingly. That said, as Colorado State University notes, “Do not assume that your sea level recipe will fail. Try it first. It may need little or no modification.” And when do you experiment with adaptations, start small, then gradually increase as needed.
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Why do baking recipes need adaptations at high altitude?
It all comes down to air pressure. The higher a geographical location is above sea level, the less air pressure there is. The less air pressure there is, the more variances you’ll notice in cooking and baking, compared to the assumptions in most cookbooks and online recipes. For example, everyone knows that water boils at 212°F, right? At sea level, yes. At 7,500 feet above sea level, however, water boils at 198°F (“because there’s not as much air pressure to inhibit the boiling action,” according to The New Food Lover’s Companion).
What are the most common changes in high altitude baking?
- Reduce baking powder. “Because of the decrease in barometric pressure at high altitudes, carbon dioxide gas expands more quickly and thus has greater leavening action,” according to The Joy of Cooking.
- Reduce sugar. Due to quicker evaporation, sugar becomes more concentrated in baked goods, which means you won’t need quite as much of it to begin with.
- Add liquid. Foods, such as flour, dry more quickly at high altitude. This means you’ll need more liquid to ensure the baked good doesn’t turn out dry or crumbly.
- Increase oven temperature. “Since leavening and evaporation proceed more quickly, the idea is to use a higher temperature to ‘set’ the structure of baked goods before they over-expand and dry out,” King Arthur writes.
How do you convert a baking recipe for high altitude?
Bonus recommendations for baked goods at high altitude:
- Increase oven temperature by 15°F to 25°F.
- Decrease baking time by about 5 minutes (per every 30 minutes called for in a recipe).
- Egg whites should only be whipped to soft peaks.
Now that we’ve learned the basics, let’s explore some examples. Below are three favorite baked good recipes from the site—let’s figure out how to convert them for high altitude.
Alice Medrich’s Cocoa Brownies at 4,000 feet
- Decrease granulated sugar by 1 tablespoon.
- Increase the oven temperature from 325°F to 345°F.
- Decrease baking time by 0 to 5 minutes as needed.
Best Banana Nut Bread at 5,500 feet
- Decrease baking powder by ½ teaspoon
- Decrease brown sugar by ½ tablespoon.
- Increase mashed bananas by 2 tablespoons.
- Increase oven temperature from 350°F to 365°F.
- Decrease baking time from about 75 minutes to 70 minutes.
Louisa’s Cake at 7,000 feet
- Decrease baking powder by ¾ teaspoon.
- Decrease sugar by 2 tablespoons.
- Increase grated apple by 3 tablespoons.
- Increase oven temperature from 400°F to 425°F.
- Decrease baking time from 30 minutes to 25 minutes.
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Emma is a writer and recipe developer at Food52. Before this, she worked a lot of odd jobs, all at the same time. Think: stir-frying noodles „on the fly,” baking dozens of pastries at 3 a.m., reviewing restaurants, and writing articles about everything from how to use leftover mashed potatoes to the history of pies in North Carolina. Now she lives in Maplewood, New Jersey with her husband and their cat, Butter. Stay tuned every Tuesday for Emma’s cooking column, Big Little Recipes, all about big flavor and little ingredient lists. And see what she’s up to on Instagram and Twitter at @emmalaperruque.